Enum either::Either[−][src]

pub enum Either<L, R> {
Left(L),
Right(R),
}
Expand description

The enum Either with variants Left and Right is a general purpose sum type with two cases.

The Either type is symmetric and treats its variants the same way, without preference. (For representing success or error, use the regular Result enum instead.)

Variants

Left(L)

A value of type L.

Right(R)

A value of type R.

Implementations

Return true if the value is the Left variant.

use either::*;

let values = [Left(1), Right("the right value")];
assert_eq!(values.is_left(), true);
assert_eq!(values.is_left(), false);

Return true if the value is the Right variant.

use either::*;

let values = [Left(1), Right("the right value")];
assert_eq!(values.is_right(), false);
assert_eq!(values.is_right(), true);

Convert the left side of Either<L, R> to an Option<L>.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left("some value");
assert_eq!(left.left(),  Some("some value"));

let right: Either<(), _> = Right(321);
assert_eq!(right.left(), None);

Convert the right side of Either<L, R> to an Option<R>.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left("some value");
assert_eq!(left.right(),  None);

let right: Either<(), _> = Right(321);
assert_eq!(right.right(), Some(321));

Convert &Either<L, R> to Either<&L, &R>.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left("some value");
assert_eq!(left.as_ref(), Left(&"some value"));

let right: Either<(), _> = Right("some value");
assert_eq!(right.as_ref(), Right(&"some value"));

Convert &mut Either<L, R> to Either<&mut L, &mut R>.

use either::*;

fn mutate_left(value: &mut Either<u32, u32>) {
if let Some(l) = value.as_mut().left() {
*l = 999;
}
}

let mut left = Left(123);
let mut right = Right(123);
mutate_left(&mut left);
mutate_left(&mut right);
assert_eq!(left, Left(999));
assert_eq!(right, Right(123));

Convert Either<L, R> to Either<R, L>.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left(123);
assert_eq!(left.flip(), Right(123));

let right: Either<(), _> = Right("some value");
assert_eq!(right.flip(), Left("some value"));

Apply the function f on the value in the Left variant if it is present rewrapping the result in Left.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, u32> = Left(123);
assert_eq!(left.map_left(|x| x * 2), Left(246));

let right: Either<u32, _> = Right(123);
assert_eq!(right.map_left(|x| x * 2), Right(123));

Apply the function f on the value in the Right variant if it is present rewrapping the result in Right.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, u32> = Left(123);
assert_eq!(left.map_right(|x| x * 2), Left(123));

let right: Either<u32, _> = Right(123);
assert_eq!(right.map_right(|x| x * 2), Right(246));

Apply one of two functions depending on contents, unifying their result. If the value is Left(L) then the first function f is applied; if it is Right(R) then the second function g is applied.

use either::*;

fn square(n: u32) -> i32 { (n * n) as i32 }
fn negate(n: i32) -> i32 { -n }

let left: Either<u32, i32> = Left(4);
assert_eq!(left.either(square, negate), 16);

let right: Either<u32, i32> = Right(-4);
assert_eq!(right.either(square, negate), 4);

Like either, but provide some context to whichever of the functions ends up being called.

// In this example, the context is a mutable reference
use either::*;

let mut result = Vec::new();

let values = vec![Left(2), Right(2.7)];

for value in values {
value.either_with(&mut result,
|ctx, integer| ctx.push(integer),
|ctx, real| ctx.push(f64::round(real) as i32));
}

assert_eq!(result, vec![2, 3]);

Apply the function f on the value in the Left variant if it is present.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, u32> = Left(123);
assert_eq!(left.left_and_then::<_,()>(|x| Right(x * 2)), Right(246));

let right: Either<u32, _> = Right(123);
assert_eq!(right.left_and_then(|x| Right::<(), _>(x * 2)), Right(123));

Apply the function f on the value in the Right variant if it is present.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, u32> = Left(123);
assert_eq!(left.right_and_then(|x| Right(x * 2)), Left(123));

let right: Either<u32, _> = Right(123);
assert_eq!(right.right_and_then(|x| Right(x * 2)), Right(246));

Convert the inner value to an iterator.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, Vec<u32>> = Left(vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
let mut right: Either<Vec<u32>, _> = Right(vec![]);
right.extend(left.into_iter());
assert_eq!(right, Right(vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5]));

Return left value or given value

Arguments passed to left_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use left_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

let left: Either<&str, &str> = Left("left");
assert_eq!(left.left_or("foo"), "left");

let right: Either<&str, &str> = Right("right");
assert_eq!(right.left_or("left"), "left");

Return left or a default

Examples

let left: Either<String, u32> = Left("left".to_string());
assert_eq!(left.left_or_default(), "left");

let right: Either<String, u32> = Right(42);
assert_eq!(right.left_or_default(), String::default());

Returns left value or computes it from a closure

Examples

let left: Either<String, u32> = Left("3".to_string());
assert_eq!(left.left_or_else(|_| unreachable!()), "3");

let right: Either<String, u32> = Right(3);
assert_eq!(right.left_or_else(|x| x.to_string()), "3");

Return right value or given value

Arguments passed to right_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use right_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

let right: Either<&str, &str> = Right("right");
assert_eq!(right.right_or("foo"), "right");

let left: Either<&str, &str> = Left("left");
assert_eq!(left.right_or("right"), "right");

Return right or a default

Examples

let left: Either<String, u32> = Left("left".to_string());
assert_eq!(left.right_or_default(), u32::default());

let right: Either<String, u32> = Right(42);
assert_eq!(right.right_or_default(), 42);

Returns right value or computes it from a closure

Examples

let left: Either<String, u32> = Left("3".to_string());
assert_eq!(left.right_or_else(|x| x.parse().unwrap()), 3);

let right: Either<String, u32> = Right(3);
assert_eq!(right.right_or_else(|_| unreachable!()), 3);

Returns the left value

Examples

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left(3);
assert_eq!(left.unwrap_left(), 3);

Panics

When Either is a Right value

let right: Either<(), _> = Right(3);
right.unwrap_left();

Returns the right value

Examples

let right: Either<(), _> = Right(3);
assert_eq!(right.unwrap_right(), 3);

Panics

When Either is a Left value

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left(3);
left.unwrap_right();

Returns the left value

Examples

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left(3);
assert_eq!(left.expect_left("value was Right"), 3);

Panics

When Either is a Right value

let right: Either<(), _> = Right(3);
right.expect_left("value was Right");

Returns the right value

Examples

let right: Either<(), _> = Right(3);
assert_eq!(right.expect_right("value was Left"), 3);

Panics

When Either is a Left value

let left: Either<_, ()> = Left(3);
left.expect_right("value was Right");

Factor out a homogeneous type from an either of pairs.

Here, the homogeneous type is the first element of the pairs.

use either::*;
let left: Either<_, (u32, String)> = Left((123, vec!));
assert_eq!(left.factor_first().0, 123);

let right: Either<(u32, Vec<u8>), _> = Right((123, String::new()));
assert_eq!(right.factor_first().0, 123);

Factor out a homogeneous type from an either of pairs.

Here, the homogeneous type is the second element of the pairs.

use either::*;
let left: Either<_, (String, u32)> = Left((vec!, 123));
assert_eq!(left.factor_second().1, 123);

let right: Either<(Vec<u8>, u32), _> = Right((String::new(), 123));
assert_eq!(right.factor_second().1, 123);

Extract the value of an either over two equivalent types.

use either::*;

let left: Either<_, u32> = Left(123);
assert_eq!(left.into_inner(), 123);

let right: Either<u32, _> = Right(123);
assert_eq!(right.into_inner(), 123);

Map f over the contained value and return the result in the corresponding variant.

use either::*;

let value: Either<_, i32> = Right(42);

let other = value.map(|x| x * 2);
assert_eq!(other, Right(84));

Trait Implementations

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

The resulting type after dereferencing.

Dereferences the value.

Mutably dereferences the value.

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Removes and returns an element from the end of the iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_advance_by)

Returns the nth element from the end of the iterator. Read more

This is the reverse version of Iterator::try_fold(): it takes elements starting from the back of the iterator. Read more

An iterator method that reduces the iterator’s elements to a single, final value, starting from the back. Read more

Searches for an element of an iterator from the back that satisfies a predicate. Read more

Returns the exact length of the iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (exact_size_is_empty)

Returns true if the iterator is empty. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Convert from Result to Either with Ok => Right and Err => Left.

Performs the conversion.

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

Convert from Either to Result with Right => Ok and Left => Err.

Performs the conversion.

Either<L, R> is an iterator if both L and R are iterators.

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Returns the bounds on the remaining length of the iterator. Read more

Folds every element into an accumulator by applying an operation, returning the final result. Read more

Consumes the iterator, counting the number of iterations and returning it. Read more

Consumes the iterator, returning the last element. Read more

Returns the nth element of the iterator. Read more

Transforms an iterator into a collection. Read more

Tests if every element of the iterator matches a predicate. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_advance_by)

Creates an iterator starting at the same point, but stepping by the given amount at each iteration. Read more

Takes two iterators and creates a new iterator over both in sequence. Read more

‘Zips up’ two iterators into a single iterator of pairs. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_intersperse)

Creates a new iterator which places a copy of separator between adjacent items of the original iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_intersperse)

Creates a new iterator which places an item generated by separator between adjacent items of the original iterator. Read more

Takes a closure and creates an iterator which calls that closure on each element. Read more

Calls a closure on each element of an iterator. Read more

Creates an iterator which uses a closure to determine if an element should be yielded. Read more

Creates an iterator that both filters and maps. Read more

Creates an iterator which gives the current iteration count as well as the next value. Read more

Creates an iterator which can use the peek and peek_mut methods to look at the next element of the iterator without consuming it. See their documentation for more information. Read more

Creates an iterator that skips elements based on a predicate. Read more

Creates an iterator that yields elements based on a predicate. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_map_while)

Creates an iterator that both yields elements based on a predicate and maps. Read more

Creates an iterator that skips the first n elements. Read more

Creates an iterator that yields the first n elements, or fewer if the underlying iterator ends sooner. Read more

An iterator adaptor similar to fold that holds internal state and produces a new iterator. Read more

Creates an iterator that works like map, but flattens nested structure. Read more

Creates an iterator that flattens nested structure. Read more

Creates an iterator which ends after the first None. Read more

Does something with each element of an iterator, passing the value on. Read more

Borrows an iterator, rather than consuming it. Read more

Consumes an iterator, creating two collections from it. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_partition_in_place)

new API

Reorders the elements of this iterator in-place according to the given predicate, such that all those that return true precede all those that return false. Returns the number of true elements found. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_is_partitioned)

new API

Checks if the elements of this iterator are partitioned according to the given predicate, such that all those that return true precede all those that return false. Read more

An iterator method that applies a function as long as it returns successfully, producing a single, final value. Read more

An iterator method that applies a fallible function to each item in the iterator, stopping at the first error and returning that error. Read more

Reduces the elements to a single one, by repeatedly applying a reducing operation. Read more

Tests if any element of the iterator matches a predicate. Read more

Searches for an element of an iterator that satisfies a predicate. Read more

Applies function to the elements of iterator and returns the first non-none result. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_find)

new API

Applies function to the elements of iterator and returns the first true result or the first error. Read more

Searches for an element in an iterator, returning its index. Read more

Searches for an element in an iterator from the right, returning its index. Read more

Returns the maximum element of an iterator. Read more

Returns the minimum element of an iterator. Read more

Returns the element that gives the maximum value from the specified function. Read more

Returns the element that gives the maximum value with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more

Returns the element that gives the minimum value from the specified function. Read more

Returns the element that gives the minimum value with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more

Reverses an iterator’s direction. Read more

Converts an iterator of pairs into a pair of containers. Read more

Creates an iterator which copies all of its elements. Read more

Creates an iterator which clones all of its elements. Read more

Repeats an iterator endlessly. Read more

Sums the elements of an iterator. Read more

Iterates over the entire iterator, multiplying all the elements Read more

Lexicographically compares the elements of this Iterator with those of another. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_order_by)

Lexicographically compares the elements of this Iterator with those of another with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more

Lexicographically compares the elements of this Iterator with those of another. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_order_by)

Lexicographically compares the elements of this Iterator with those of another with respect to the specified comparison function. Read more

Determines if the elements of this Iterator are equal to those of another. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (iter_order_by)

Determines if the elements of this Iterator are equal to those of another with respect to the specified equality function. Read more

Determines if the elements of this Iterator are unequal to those of another. Read more

Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically less than those of another. Read more

Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically less or equal to those of another. Read more

Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically greater than those of another. Read more

Determines if the elements of this Iterator are lexicographically greater than or equal to those of another. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this iterator are sorted. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this iterator are sorted using the given comparator function. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this iterator are sorted using the given key extraction function. Read more

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.